Wednesday, February 25, 2009

Global Economy: Commerce and European Expansion


    Transformation in tradition allowed for the growth of merchant capitalism


  1. This played a significant role in European expansionism; the conquest and exploitation of other lands and peoples

  2. For the most part, European mindset in the accumulation of wealth and power gave them the ability to conquer the world so effectively

  3. Transformations and the Origins of the European Invasions


    1. Breakdown of Feudal System


      1. Lords and peasants

      2. Gruel;lords were trying to differentiate their diet from the peasants, and avoided simply eating gruel (boiled wheat, horribly disgusting!)


        1. Different types of food were developed


      1. Manager class develops


        1. I.e.: millers, bakers, smiths, merchants


      1. Lords, who become Kings and Princes because of their growth in power, eventually search to have more power due to the competition

      2. Renaissance individualism needs to be remembered throughout this


        1. Due to the breakdown of the feudal system, since there is a middle class, as well as the individualism, there is a drive for wealth, particularly among Lords and Princes


          1. Mercantilism: Partnership between mfg/merchant elite and rulers to enhance wealth for the state through strict control of commerce


      1. Merchants and Kingdoms grow in power and wealth, and the focus is on a growing of power and wealth among these kingdoms and merchants


        1. i.e. Christopher Columbus


          1. Is a Merchant who builds contact with some of the powerful monarchies of Europe; Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain, who are seeking faster wealth through a more direct trade route to India

          2. His "discovery" had already been made by the Vikings, but anything that was "discovered" during this period as a way to increase wealth become more prominent


    1. Increased Contact; these four things shaped how people came into contact with other people


      1. Renaissance culture; humankind is the centre of economic, political, social activity


        1. People are not constrained by cosmology or religious beliefs (morals, and superstition)

        2. Mankind had become the reason for economic activity, the gods


      1. European civilized, learned world


        1. They are thinking about Man’s place, specifically Europeans’ place in the world


      1. Religious reformation; competition for souls

      2. Calvinist ideology of wealth


        1. Personal wealth is a sign of righteousness

        2. Wealth became something that you could hold onto, and something that you could strive for, because it was a sign of God’s blessing upon you (yeah right!)


      • What is the "other"?


        • Uncivilized, barbaric, pagan

        • "new" world


    1. Tradition and the "others"


      • Tradition had remained much more constant in the other places of the world

      • Americas- i.e. Aztec empire


        • This tribe believed that the Sun God could come back every 52 years, and destroy all the people if the sacrifices were not worthy; it just so happened that the Spanish contact occurred at this point in time


      • East Asia- i.e. Ming Dynasty


        • Zheng He; travelled like crazy


          • Approached contact through Confucian mindset; treat people with benevolence, because of the mandate of heaven, etc.


    1. Age of Expansion


      • Ownership and control is sought

      • Accomplished through the process of colonialism


        • It would be too difficult to maintain control across the ocean, so people are "put on the ground"

        • The belief that only ____ (insert people here) had the right to rule and control resources; this belief was particularly strong in Europe


          • For Example, Spain laying claim to all of South and Central America


            • Set up rulers throughout the land


          • England; far too weak to conquer anything, so mostly pirates are used in the 1500’s, and in the 1600’s they begin to colonize and settle

          • France, Portugal, Dutch Republic

          • Marginalization: all of the other cultures are pushed to the side (people of Africa, India, etc)

          • Finance capitalism; the people who financed the merchants get their money back; originally it is the kings, but it moves more towards merchants, who are amassing capital, and sponsor these explorers


            • By the 1600’s, the explorers are no longer important, especially since they don’t really make any money from what they do

  4. Invading Africa and the Americas


    1. Indigenous populations; what happens to them?


      1. There are as many as 200 000 000 people living in the Americas when Columbus arives


        1. This number is down to 1 500 000 people in about 100 years, due to disease primarily, and then war


    1. A lot of wealth is gained from the Americas


      1. Resources; gold, silver, furs, timber, etc.


        1. Very quickly take these items, especially in south America, where there was a lot of gold


      1. Products; cotton, grain


    1. Sugar trade (developed in the late 1400’s by the Portuguese)


      1. Becomes a very desired commodity

      2. Becomes a symbol of wealth/status in Europe


        1. Extremely expensive, due to the amount of labour and shipping needed, so the Dutch develop something called joint stock companies


          1. First one known as the Dutch West India Company (created in 1621), people would pool their money and own a share of the company, and receive yearly dividends


            1. This was how to raise capital, but how to pay for labour?


          1. Plantation agriculture


            1. Both the Portuguese and the Dutch hiring European workers, but they are expensive, and there is not a lot of labour, since there are wars going on; Portuguese turn to indigenous people


              • They knew the land, so it was easy for them to escape, and they died of diseases all the time


            1. Turned to African slaves, and the Atlantic Trade Triangle


              • Triangle was; guns brought to Africa, to get slaves, that were brought to America, where sugar/cotton/etc.was picked up and brought to Europe

              • Impact: Accumulation of capital in Europe, especially among:


                • Merchants

                • Investors


                  • Lloyd’s of London, invested in coffee, and is now a massive bank


              • Race Slavery; discrimination was now based on physical attributes, where one race Is better than another

              • Chattel slavery


                • Slaves, for the first time in history, were viewed as non-humans, and treated as such; like horses or cattle

                • Treated as mere property, and throughout the Caribbean, slaves are often worked to death


              • Total number of people shipped from Africa to the Americas between 1518-1850 was 30 000 000


    1. African Responses


      1. Collaboration; some elites work with the slave traders; such as


        1. The African King of the Kongo, in the early 1500’s


          1. Sought European goods, and got those goods by trading slaves; goods such as silks and more particularly guns

          2. Sent warriors out to other areas to capture slaves for trade

          3. This creates a type of destabilization because other people seek to usurp the king of the Kongo by offering better deals to the Europeans to attain guns


            1. "Many of our subjects eagerly covet Portuguese merchandise, which your people bring into our kingdom, to satisfy this disordered appetite they seize numbers of our free or freed subjects and…sell them to the white people, This corruption and depravity is so widespread that our land is entirely depopulated, [and we don’t want to trade with them anymore!]"


      1. Survival


        1. War occurs between different tribes, in order to avoid being captured as slaves


          1. The tribes that you are defending yourself against will have access to guns, so you need to start trading slaves in order to attain guns for your own tribe


            1. I.e. Angolan coast; the value of a human being was approximately 2 guns


    1. Effect of slavery on Europe


      1. Human labour is seen as a commodity


        1. This paves the way for paid labour


      1. Social Stratification


        1. There is an increase, as more goods flow into Europe; the people at the top of European society get very wealthy; but there begins to grow many different levels


          1. Kings/monarchs, bakers/merchants, peasants, workers, servants


            1. All now have access to things like bread and cake, even the lowest in the society


        1. Social stratification in the world: one nation becomes rich, while another nation becomes very poor (Europe vs. Africa)

  5. Invading the Indian and Pacific Oceans


    1. The European countries had still been attempting to get to India in an efficient way

    2. Portugal was able to do this


      • Prince Henry made a navigation school (1419) that was specifically made to find a route to India

      • They sail further and further south, until they eventually manage to sail all the way around Africa, and are able to enter the Indian Ocean trade network


    1. Indian Ocean Trade Network


      • City-states, where local small rulers controlled trade, and their was significant merchant enclaves

      • The Portuguese approached this area with their commonly held mindset; "we are superior, and all others are to be under us"


        • Take over the port in Goa (1510)

        • The Chinese don’t care who controls the ports, they will continue to trade, so the Portuguese realize that this could be a very profitable enterprise


      • Malacca (1511)


        • Whoever controlled Malacca could control the spice trade, because of its position

        • Was controlled by Arabs

        • The Portuguese attack Malacca and kill all of the Muslims…all! They build warehouses, and place trade restrictions and taxes onto other merchants; they build a military fort…and a church


          • Note; the Chinese had never taken control of Malacca, because it went against their Confucian beliefs, but the Portuguese were focused on their European mindset; gain control, power, and wealth!


      • The Dutch come in the 1600’s

      • The British come n the 1600’s, dominating India and some parts of China

      • This control is generally focused on the Ports, and they don’t really go inland at all

  6. Confronting Large Polities


    1. Ming China (1514)


      • The Portuguese were not content, and they want control over China

      • the Portuguese land near the city of Hong Kong

      • The Emperor referred to Portugal as barbarians, and waited for them to bring tribute…since that’s what Asians would do!

      • Portugal never came, and they demanded trading rights from the Emperor


        • Portugal was like a fly on the back of an elephant, nothing compared to China

        • The Chinese government says; sure, we won’t be bothered, so we’ll give you Macao, and restrict your trade like crazy


          • The Portuguese had to be content


      • English and Dutch


        • They are restricted to a Canton, heavily restricted in a lot of their trade, and there’s nothing they can really do about it because China is so large: this stays the same until the 1800’s


    1. Japan


      1. Close their borders to foreign trade; only the Dutch and Chinese are allowed to trade with them


        1. Deshima :Dutch & Chinese are relegated to this small Island , off the coast of Nagasaki (1640)

        2. For the most part, European trade is rejected by the Japanese, and they isolate themselves from European expansion


      1. Japan is able to do this, because it is far to large for Europe to conquer, and it is too distant (50 000 000, roughly)


        1. This is an example of the limits of European expansionism, even as they are driven to attain wealth

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

State Building: The Search for Order to the 17th Century


France


·Wars of Religion


·Took up the last years of the 1500’s (Edict of Nantes 1598)


·Had a lot of high class people involved in Protestantism


oThe idea of there being various ways of being a Christian is foreign, people are not tolerant with other religions and branches of Christianity


oHenry IV published the Edict of Nantes


The 30 Year War


·Took place in 1618-1648


·Involved all of the main powers on the continent


oEngland was not directly involved, but English Mercenaries were!


·Was not solely a Religious war, but was also an ambition war


oThe Hapsburgs and the Bourbons were two very powerful families who were trying to gain more power, and were very involved in the war


oPeople were not necessarily fighting for a king, but were fighting for…well, whatever! Catholics and Protestants even fought together sometimes if it would further their own ambitions


·Consequences


oArmies would forge across Europe, taking the food and shelter that they needed, and raping and pillaging peasants.


oDiversity of different languages was reduced like crazy


·German speaking people reduced by half


·Checs reduced by a third


·An increasing number of men were recruited into the military, and standing armies developed


·Peace of Westphalia



Spain’s Entrance into South America


Spain


·Phillip II, who died in 1598, was completely against Protestantism and believed that it needed to be stomped out


oHe had accumulated a lot of wealth through the Gold from the New World, as well as the land that he had gained through marriage and conquest


·Many of the Netherlands (Dutch) become Protestant, and start to rebel against Spanish rule, because of Spain’s Catholicism. Spain becomes more oppressive, and tries to force the Netherlands people to return to Catholicism.Creates martyrs.


oRebellion occurs, and the Netherland declares independence from Spain in 1581


oElizabeth I (1558-1603) (England) rules for a long time


oThis gives a stability to England: Elizabeth wasa moderate Protestant and her policies satisfied many of her subjects, although the Catholics are still a bit uptight.


oDuring Elizabeth’s reign, England becomes increasingly powerful


·England becomes a powerful influencer of the New World, and as a result, England tries to disrupt the Spanish influence.


·Spain retaliates in 1588 by invading with an amassed Spanish Armada


§The invasion is not successful, in part because many of the ships do not make it to England because of weather


§This convinces Elizabeth and her subjects that God is on her side


oElizabeth is succeeded by James I, who was also a Protestant.


The Columbian Exchange


General Europe


·A lot of confusion in religion, and people became more aware of evil, which resulted in witchcraft, as well as a lot of witch-burning, etc.


·Absolute Rulers develop because of the changes in society needing stability and more control, etc.


oTheory of Absolutism develops (mid-late 1600’s)


·Belief that the kings had absolute highest power


·The Kings do not have the kind of control that Totalitarian governments had, simply because of the new developments in communications, etc.


·Lous XIV r 1643-1715 (France)


§Claimed, among other kings, that they are kings by divine right


§Was the most successful of the Absolute Monarchs


§Had a magnificent palace at Versailles, which was a monument to Absolutism. At this palace, he could tell people whatever he wanted, and they had to obey


§A lot of Protestant land owners, but Louis revokes theEdict of Nantes and starts to really persecute the Protestants and try to force them to convert to Catholicism.


·Gets money from fines that he places on Protestants, and uses this money to continue conflict


·Other Absolute Monarchs:


§Hohenzollern kings of Brandenburg-Prussia


§Hapsburgs of Austria


§Peter the Great of Russia


oOther Possibilities (alternative ways that the rulers were struggling and dealing with how to rule the changing societies)


·The Dutch Republic and the stadholders


§They were not absolute rulers: needed to consult with the members of the assembly


§Eventually became the hereditary monarchs


§The English experience


·The Stewart kings


·King James (bible dude) is a Protestant


·Over time, the family after James becomes catholic


·The Commonwealth situation arises, and a big rebellion


·Restoration of the monarch occurs, and stability is brought back


·James II becomes king and marries a catholic (bad idea) people don’t want a catholic, so they tell James to go quietly, and his daughter Mary who is a Protestant takes rule


·The Glorious Revolution (William and Mary)

Native Wars and Christian Missions

The Missionaries and Missions made the violence worse

  • Through the spread of disease
  • The creation of religious rivalries
  • And by furthering the reach of the fur trade
    • Fur Trade
      • Conflict between native groups intensified
        • Basically, on one side there is the Iroquois, and on the other side is three main native groups;
          • Algonquians, the Montagna's, and Hurons.
        • These groups struggled for control of the fur trade; and Champlain decided to side with the Huron.
    • Ticonderoga
      • 1609, battle at the site of present-day New York state, which was inconclusive
      • The French helped the Huron, which signified the intensifying conflict because of the European presences
      • Eventually, the Hurons are completely owned.
    • Father Paul Le Juene
      • Had a real zeal for spreading Christianity and missions
      • Was a Jesuit!
      • Was the one who began recording "Relations", which were annual reports sent back to France about the relations between the Jesuits and the natives.
        • Didn't only tell people what was happening, but also promoted the conversion of natives and the success of the Jesuits in New France
        • As Jesuits in France read these relations, it would get them excited and they would go to New France.
    • Huronia
      • As a result of Paul Le Juene's "Relations", a lot of Jesuits came over to settle, particularly in Huronia; near Georgian Bay, 1634.
      • Disease desolated the Huron population in Huronia
      • Built Sainte-Marie-aux-Hurons
    • Marie Guyart
      • Was of the Ursuline school of Catholic nuns.
      • Founded a school to train women in Quebec
        • Believed that it was their duty to feed and teach:
          • "les sauvagesses"; the savages' daughters.
    • Notre Dame Society of Montreal
      • Madame de La Peltrie founded the dang thing.
        • Ursuline Convent
        • In Ville-Marie; Montreal
    • NOTE: Catholic zeal is all about spreading Christianity; and it's working!
      • Ends up furthering France's ability to trade furs in New France, because of the growing relations between the French and the natives.
      • The success of the French leads to the Huron-Iroquois wars in the mid-1600's
    • Ottawa river blockade (1640-1645)
      • The Iroquios are having an increasingly difficult time getting furs, and so they decide to take action
      • By cutting off the Ottawa river, they essentially ensure that the furs do not leave the basin to go to Montreal and Qu├ębec.
        • Began with an ambush, and attacked those that came with Furs
        • Because the Coreour de Bois and the Huron knew the land very well, they were able to get around the blockade.
    • Huronia (1648-1649)
      • The attempt to completely annihilate the Huron tribe was made, which had never been done before by a tribe.
      • Huronia is completely destroyed, and the Jesuits burned down St. Marie themselves before fleeing to Quebec.
    • Montreal (1651)
      • Iroquois destroy everything other than the fort, in which some of the Hurons and Jesuits were able to survive.
    • Many of the Hurons actually turned on the Jesuits, blaming them for the bringing of the fur trade.
    • The French had chosen a side, which made the brewing of the conflict even worse.

       
       

       
       

Wars, Explorations, and Settlements

A new demand for wealth drove European powers to expand and explore

There was also a new religious motivation that pushed European powers to explore the new world

The exploration of what became Canada was part of a broader phenomenon of exploration in the western hemisphere; it's not unique!

 
 

  • Origins of European Expansionism
    • Why did Columbus sail the ocean blue?
      • Identity and the breakdown of feudalism
        • Lords and peasants: In feudalism, identity was found in what position you were born in
        • Gruel
        • "manager" class (bakers, millers, etc.)
          • This manager class was the in-between class, that processed the flour into refined, better formed food, rather than gruel.
        • Status
          • This is no longer simply about what social relationship a person is born into, but is taking on material symbolism; what you can consume.
          • Material goods vs. social relationships
          • Symbols (i.e. metals, spices, etc.)
            • Lords are particularly concerned about setting themselves apart from the manager class
      • Identity and Religion
        • Protestant reformation
          • Martin Luther
          • John Calvin
            • In some ways, Calvin was more influential because he brought the idea of divine election; and his followers used this idea to claim that material wealth is a symbol of God's blessing on your life
          • Henry VIII (1509-1547)
            • Wanted to divorce his wife to have a son; can't under Catholicism. Uses the reformation movement to break with the church and establish the church of England (Anglican).
          • Society of Jesus (1540) (Jesuits)
            • Very aggressive in crusading for the Catholic church; missionary work was becoming more and more important because of the reformations and splits
          • Philip II of Spain (1556-1598)
            • Was an intensely loyal Catholic, who supported the inquisition, and tried to suppress and crush a Dutch protestant rebellion.
            • Tried to expand the Spanish empire in South America
              • Did this for two reasons; first of all, to try to serve the catholic church, and secondly to make Spain a great and wealthy power.
  • Exploration
    • Spain and Portugal
      • Hernando Cortes
        • Landed on the coast of Mexico in 1519
        • Encountered the Aztec empire
        • He arrived on the Aztec year that predicted the return of the Gods
          • Many believed him to be a god in the beginning, but quickly realized that this was not the case.
          • In the meantime, Cortes was able to get into the capital city and capture Moctezuma, the emperor of the Aztecs, as well as create alliances with surrounding tribes that hated the Aztecs.
        • One of the first things that he did was to destroy the Aztec religious sites, and replace them with crosses, etc. then he systematically stripped the Aztec civilization of all wealth and gold.
      • Francisco Pizzaro
        • Conquered the Incan empire
        • Brought missionaries with him to convert the peoples, and stripped the temples and buildings of all wealth and sent it back to Spain
    • The Netherlands
      • 1581-The Dutch Republic is declared
        • Quickly became one of Europe's powers
        • Government: decentralized merchant republicanism
          • In other words, the manager class had overthrown the higher class of princes and kings
          • As a result, there are a series of cities and provinces that meet regularly in one central place
            • Decide that they do need a figurehead; so elect William Prince of Orange
        • Dutch East and West India Company
          • These companies begin to go over seas and compete with the Spanish and Portuguese for wealth
          • Controlled the slave-trade for a long time, which was how they got a lot of their money.
      • New Amsterdam, Fort Orange
        • Colony in North America that is trading guns for furs
    • England in the Americas
      • People weren't too worried about England in the early 1500's concerning power
      • Martin Frobisher sailed in the 1570's to try to find a route across the northern part of North America
        • Has a battle with the Inuit which he looses,
        • Takes two more voyages, but is not successful.
      • Henry Hudson
        • Sailed into Hudson's bay, and thought he had found the passage, until he hit land.
      • Francis Drake
        • Basically a pirate who worked for the Queen; would go into the Spanish harbour and capture gold and take it back to the Queen
      • A lot of piracy sponsored by the Queen of England occurred
      • Humphrey Gilbert
        • Began thinking about how the English could make a break from the King of Spain
        • Wrote "A Discourse on How Her Majesty May Annoy the King of Spain"(1577)
      • Roanoke (1580's)
        • Gave it a try, where a few hundred lower-upper-class gentlemen were brought to America; a few years later when a supply ship came, there was no trace of the settlement.
      • Jamestown (1607)
        • Very much created for the purpose of bringing Christianity to the "savages" of North America
      • Plymouth Rock (1620)
        • Founded in present-day Massachusetts by pilgrims who came from Puritans; claimed that the Church of England didn't go far enough in their reformation of the church
          • Moved to the New World to be a "City On a Hill"
    • France
      • Wars of religion
        • Had there roots in two different tensions:
        • Protestants vs. Catholics
          • Literally killing each-other in the streets to gain control
        • Economic tension; between the king and nobles, based on the crown's increasing power to raise taxes
          • The nobles were trying to resist the kings taking their wealth.
        • Henry IV (r. 1594-1610)
          • Was a calvinist protestant who was making a move towards the French thrown
          • He was one of the most powerful nobles, but he couldn't create a large enough base, since only about 1/3 of France were protestants
            • Converted to Catholicism, and was declared King.
          • Catholicism and the kingdom are interlocked
          • 1598-edict of Nantes that said they would tolerate Protestantism
          • Assassinated in 1610, but his successor, Louis XIII (r. 1610-1643) would continue his work in entrenching the church and state together
            • Louis was kinda spineless; so hired Cardinal Richelieu to basically be the head of affairs
            • Cardinal Richelieu aspired to make Louis the most powerful Prince over the most powerful kingdom, hence exploration
      • French Exploration
        • Etienne Brule went to live among the natives at the age of 20, in order to see how they survived, and their technology
          • More people were sent to do this; called the coureur de bois (runners of the woods), who's sole purpose was to go and learn of the native ways
          • Chief goal was always to discover how to extract resources
        • Pierre-Esprit Radisson (1636-1710)
          • Was captured by the Mohawks, and while he was in their hands he learned their language, their way of life, the best way to get furs, etc.
          • Escaped, and viewed the natives as savages, and as such believed that it was France's right to take the resources, even if through brutal killing
          • Eventually switches sides, and begins to work for the British; was the one who got the Charter for the Hudson's Bay Company
        • Rene-Robert Cavelier de La Salle
          • Sailed down the Mississippi river
          • Claimed all the land down the Mississippi river, and called it Louisiana, after the king
  • Settlements
    • New Scotland founded in 1620
      • Created by Sir William Alexander
        • Wanted more prestige and wealth for himself, and went to King James I for permission to go and create a settlement in the new world
        • King James was like "huyah!" and supported it, since James was looking for a away to expand British power
      • The settlement was a disaster, since very few people wanted to go, and it was eventually turned over to the French
    • Newfoundland
      • Newfoundland Company; was founded by powerful British merchants
        • Largely based around the fish industry
        • Decided the best way to exploit the resources was to create settlements on Newfoundland, but due to the harsh weathers, piracy, and other reasons, these settlements never flourished.
        • Very few people survived!
    • Acadia
      • Central focus for the French in concerning settlements
        • The French like the English had decided that settlements were the best way to exploit the new resources
      • Largely the crown promoted the settlement of Acadia, but they were joined by the Jesuit missionaries, who insisted on being part of settlement in order to convert these new dark lands
      • Control of Acadia switched from British and French hands quite a few times
    • Canada
      • Emerged out of efforts to settle Acadia
      • Samuel de Champlain
        • Job was to ensure that Acadia had access to the wealth of the interior.
        • Sails up the St. Lawrence and founds Quebec as a trading post
        • Went further inland and created alliances with natives and indigenous peoples
        • 1618-Champlain returned to his French Overseers, and told them that a trading post or two won't cut it, because the bounty of resources is so great that there needs to be permanent settlements there in order to really gain the wealth of this new land.
          • The crown was very enthusiastic; but Champlain was no administrator, he was a visionary
      • Cardinal Richelieu
        • In 1627, took over direct control over this area called Canada, and it was labeled New France.
        • Very much interested in gaining wealth for France, but also motivated by the church, considering he's a cardinal!
          • Founded the Company of One Hundred Associates
        • By 1635, there were no more than 150 settlers, so Merchants are allowed to simply do it on their own (i.e. hire settlers, etc, and the crown would tax them in exchange for military protection).
        • By the 1660's, there were approximately 6000 settlers

Conclusions:

  • wealth and status was extremely important; nobles trying to increase wealth, kings trying to maintain their position and become the wealthiest king!
  • Religious identity; the expansion of the church itself, and the zeal of the Jesuits became very prominent
    • The church was used to complete power, and when that power was questioned, it revitalized the zeal of the church to hold onto that power
  • The settlements were part of a broader phenomenon
    • Definitely not for the purpose of creating a new nation; they were European focused exploration